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The brittle nature of ceramic materials affects its application. The main reason is the existence of defects inside the ceramic. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the research boom of Al2O2 ceramic matrix composites and other ceramic matrix composites has been formed many times in the past 20 years. These ceramic materials are designed. The preparation, processing and testing have experienced the following efforts and attempts.
The design of ceramics and composites around the improvement of the toughness and machinability of ceramic materials has gone through the following stages:
(1) Phase-change toughening ceramics utilizes the volume expansion effect of ZrO2 under the action of stress from tetragonal to monoclinic phase, inhibiting crack propagation and initiation, thereby improving the fracture toughness of ceramic materials, and its application at low temperatures Great success, mainly ZrO2 ceramics and toughened Al2O3 ceramics.
(2) High-precision ceramics are typical of nano-ceramics and nano-Al2O ceramic composites. The purpose is to eliminate the defects inside the ceramics as much as possible, reduce the scale and quantity of internal defects of ceramics, and prevent cracks.
(3) High toughness/high hardness a Sialon ceramic. This material uses a Si3N as raw material, and the self-toughening process consisting of slender B-SiN4 crystal interspersed in equiaxed a-Si3N4 can be obtained by partial phase transformation during sintering. Ceramics, among which the newly developed high-diameter ratio sialon can achieve high hardness and high fracture.